Guest Blogger: Rasim Guldiken

Date: March 20, 2020

While we are scrambling to take the courses we teach from face-to-face format to remote format, we all could use simple tools to make the process simple and easy to implement.  I have created two extensive tutorials.

The second tutorial illustrates on how to embed any YouTube video to your Canvas LMS course content.

I have been recording and uploading the videos to my Canvas course since Spring 2019, but following the same procedure has been frustrating as it takes several hours for videos to process. I really can’t blame anyone; there is an unprecedented load to the servers.

That is the reason I created this alternative method tutorial on using 1) YouTube as a platform to upload and store your content  and then 2) embedding the videos to Canvas.

This process works flawlessly as the videos are not stored on the LMS servers.

Dr. Rasim Guldiken is an Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of South Florida.  His engineering education interests lie in open courseware for a course in Fluid Mechanics, metacognitive activities, and flipped learning.

## Why Do We Use Numerical Methods?

Numerical methods are techniques to approximate mathematical procedures (an example of a mathematical procedure is an integral).

Approximations are needed because we either cannot solve the procedure analytically (an example is the standard normal cumulative distribution function) or because the analytical method is intractable ( an example is solving a set of a thousand simultaneous linear equations for a thousand unknowns for finding forces in a truss) _______________

This post is brought to you by

• Holistic Numerical Methods Open Course Ware:
• the textbooks on
• the Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) available at

## Why Don’t I Allow (Not Ban) Use of Cell Phones in Class – An Open Letter to Students?

Dear Students:

You are not allowed to use cell phones in this class — it is considered academic disruption. If you are expecting an important call or text, please let me know in advance and I will advise to sit at desks close to the door. You can quickly go outside to take the call or reply to your text. In a class of over a hundred, only a few people take me up on this offer, but the offer is available to you. “Loved ones though should call 911 in case of an emergency — the local responders will be there faster than you can.”

If you have an approved request for accommodation through the Student Disability Services to use your cell phone, please use it as per the allowed guidelines — just let me know in the first week of classes. You are being an exception to the policy is nobody’s business including mine. Do not be concerned about being “outed” — we all are outed every day – some are in a wheel chair while others use a skateboard, some can only take the elevator while others only take the stairs; some of us are not good looking while others are blessed with a head full of hair; some wear a head dress, while others have a skullcap on.

You are allowed to use flat laptops and tablets only if they are used to take notes with a stylus. A student cannot claim they want to type notes as that is virtually impossible to do in an engineering course lecture that is full of equations and sketches. Anyway, taking notes by hand is shown to be cognitively better than typing.

About those students who may mention personal responsibility and that disallowing the cell phone is an ego trip for me, how many studies do I need to show these students about negative effects of multitasking and working memory when one is learning something new.

The student use of cell phones distracts others and there are studies on that too.

Since we are using active learning in class, questions are encouraged even more so. It is harder to discern if a student is asking a question because of inattention or lack of understanding.  The former is a waste of precious class time for the rest of us.

And more importantly, removing temptation is much better than self-control. We only have so much self-control quota during the day – so having a no cell phone policy is helping the student to preserve some self-control for more important issues of the day.

Some may say, “Be more interesting than the incoming text”. I just cannot compete, as learning something new is hard and looking at a “Facebook like” is an immediate high.

Control the machine; do not let the machine control you.

Best of Learning
Autar Kaw

______________________

This post is brought to you by

• Holistic Numerical Methods Open Course Ware:
• the textbooks on
• the Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) available at

## How do I solve simultaneous linear equations given in equation form? Updated Matlab 2018b

Guest co-blogger: : Luis Serrano

Many students ask me how do I do this or that in MATLAB.  So I thought why not have a small series of my next few blogs do that.  In this blog, I show you how to solve simultaneous linear equations given in equation form.

• The MATLAB program link is here.
• The HTML version of the MATLAB program is here.
• DO NOT COPY AND PASTE THE PROGRAM BELOW BECAUSE THE SINGLE QUOTES DO NOT TRANSLATE TO THE CORRECT SINGLE QUOTES IN MATLAB EDITOR.  DOWNLOAD THE MATLAB PROGRAM INSTEAD

%% SUMMARY
% Language : Matlab 2018b;
% Authors : Autar Kaw and Luis Serrano;
% Mfile available at
% http://nm.mathforcollege.com/blog/SimultaneousEquationsEqForm.m;
% Last Revised : January 22, 2020;
% Abstract: This program shows you how to solve a set of
% simultaneous linear equations given in equation form?
% .
clc
clear all
%% INTRODUCTION
disp(‘ABSTRACT’)
disp(‘ This program shows you how to solve a’)
disp(‘ set of simultaneous linear equations given in equation form’)
disp(‘ ‘)
disp(‘AUTHOR’)
disp(‘ Autar Kaw and Luis Serrano’)
disp(‘ ‘)
disp(‘MFILE SOURCE’)
disp(‘ http://nm.mathforcollege.com/blog/SimultaneousEquationsEqForm.m&#8217;)
disp(‘ ‘)
disp(‘LAST REVISED’)
disp(‘ January 22, 2020’)
disp(‘ ‘)
%% INPUTS
% Enter the equations
syms a b c
eqn1=12*a+23*b+39*c==29
eqn2=13*a+17*b+19*c==37
eqn3=21*a+23*b+29*c==59
%% DISPLAYING INPUTS
disp(‘ ‘)
disp(‘INPUTS’)
disp(‘________________________’)
disp(‘Equations’)
disp(‘________________________’)
disp(eqn1)
disp(eqn2)
disp(eqn3)
%% THE CODE
% The solution
X=solve(eqn1,eqn2,eqn3);
% Assigning the output
a=double(X.a);
b=double(X.b);
c=double(X.c);
%% DISPLAYING OUTPUTS
disp(‘ ‘)
disp(‘OUTPUTS’)
disp(‘________________________’)
disp(‘Solution Vector’)
disp(‘________________________’)
fprintf(‘\nValue of a= %g’,a)
fprintf(‘\nValue of b= %g’,b)
fprintf(‘\nValue of c= %g’,c)
disp(‘ ‘)
disp(‘________________________’)

_______________________

This post is brought to you by

• Holistic Numerical Methods Open Course Ware:
• the textbooks on
• the Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) available at

## How do I solve a nonlinear equation that needs to be setup – Updated to MATLAB 2018b

Guest co-blogger: Luis Serrano

Many students ask me how do I do this or that in MATLAB. So I thought why not have a small series of my next few blogs do that. In this blog, I show you how to solve a nonlinear equation that needs to be set up.

For example to find the depth ‘x’ to which a ball is floating in water is based on the following cubic equation
4*R^3*S=3*x^2*(R-x/3)
where
S= specific gravity of ball
So how do we set this up if S and R are input values?

The MATLAB program link is here.

The HTML version of the MATLAB program is here.

• DO NOT COPY AND PASTE THE PROGRAM BELOW BECAUSE THE SINGLE QUOTES DO NOT TRANSLATE TO THE CORRECT SINGLE QUOTES IN MATLAB EDITOR.  DOWNLOAD THE MATLAB PROGRAM INSTEAD

%% SUMMARY
% Language : Matlab 2018b;
% Authors : Autar Kaw and Luis Serrano;
% Mfile available at
% http://nm.mathforcollege.com/blog/NonlinearEquations_withSetUp.m;
% Last Revised : January 22, 2020;
% Abstract: This program shows you how to solve a nonlinear equation
% that needs to set up as opposed that is just given to you.
clc
clear all
%% INTRODUCTION
disp(‘ABSTRACT’)
disp(‘ This program shows you how to solve’)
disp(‘ a nonlinear equation that needs to be setup’)
disp(‘ ‘)
disp(‘AUTHORS’)
disp(‘ Autar Kaw and Luis Serrano’)
disp(‘ ‘)
disp(‘MFILE SOURCE’)
disp(‘ http://nm.mathforcollege.com/blog/NonlinearEquations_withSetUp.m&#8217;)
disp(‘ ‘)
disp(‘LAST REVISED’)
disp(‘ January 22, 2020’)
disp(‘ ‘)
%% INPUTS
% Solve the nonlinear equation where you need to set up the equation
% For example to find the depth ‘x’ to which a ball is floating in water is based on the following
% cubic equation 4*R^3*S=3*x^2*(R-x/3) R= radius of ball S= specific gravity of ball So how do we set this up if S and R are input values
S=0.6
R=0.055
%% DISPLAYING INPUTS
disp(‘INPUTS’)
func=[‘ The equation to be solved is 4*R^3*S=3*x^2*(R-x/3)’];
disp(func)
disp(‘ ‘)
%% THE CODE
% Define x as a symbol
syms x
% Setting up the equation
C1=4*R^3*S
C2=3*x^2*(R-x/3)
f=C1==C2
% Finding the solution of the nonlinear equation
soln=vpasolve(f,x);
solnvalue=double(soln);
%% DISPLAYING OUTPUTS
disp(‘OUTPUTS’)
for i=1:1:length(solnvalue)
fprintf(‘\nThe solution# %g is %g’,i,solnvalue(i))
end
disp(‘ ‘)

________________________

This post is brought to you by

• Holistic Numerical Methods Open Course Ware:
• the textbooks on
• the Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) available at

## Student participant costs in NSF budgets counts as direct cost

A common budget question gets asked about students who participate in the National Science Foundation Education and Human Resources NSF EHR grants and get paid for items such as focus group participation.  Does it count as direct cost?  Yes, it does.  Just read the language on page 53 (Page II-19) of Proposal & Award Policies & Procedures Guide (PAPPG) (NSF 19-1)

Human subject payments should be included on line G6 of the NSF budget under “Other Direct Costs,” and any applicable indirect costs should be calculated on the payments in accordance with the organization’s federally negotiated indirect cost rate.

## Third Edition of Programming Textbook

We have just published the third edition of the textbook on programming with MATLAB.   It is available for purchase at http://www.lulu.com/shop/autar-kaw-and-benjamin-rigsby-and-ismet-handzic-and-daniel-miller/introduction-to-programming-concepts-with-matlab-third-edition/paperback/product-24333322.html

The book is intended for an introductory course in programming in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields while using MATLAB as the programming language. MATLAB is a popular computational software package used in universities and industries alike.

This textbook differentiates itself from others in two specific ways.

1. The textbook is suitable for the many engineering departments throughout the nation that no longer teach a 3-credit hour programming course. They weave programming and mathematical software packages such as MATLAB in courses such as Foundations of Engineering, Freshmen Design, Modeling of Systems, Engineering Analysis, Numerical Methods, etc. This book is highly suitable for such audiences. To achieve these goals and make the access far-reaching, we have been deliberate in keeping the lessons short in length so that instructors can easily choose the course content in a modular way.
2. The textbook is a stand-alone resource for learning programming where the lectures complement the textbook rather than vice versa. This is because of the reason above where in-classroom time is truncated, and therefore students need to be more self-taught. For this reason, we have been meticulous when selecting and organizing the textbook content to include fundamental and application programming problems that prepare students well for other problems they will solve in academia and industry. The book has nine modules which have been each broken down by lessons. There are 42 lessons in all and depending on the learning outcomes of the course, an instructor can choose to assign only necessary lessons. Modules 1-3 focus on MATLAB and programming basics like the MATLAB program interface, programming variables, different types of data, debugging, plotting, and applications to science and engineering problems. In Module 4, we show the use of MATLAB for basic mathematical procedures learned in the engineering courses including nonlinear equations, integration, differentiation, simultaneous linear equations, interpolation, regression, and ordinary differential equations. In Modules 5-8, the user is introduced to basic programming concepts of conditional statements, repetition (loops), and custom functions. In Module 9, program input/output is shown with writing to and reading from external files as well as navigating directories with MATLAB. Important appendices include a primer on matrix algebra, a collection of mini-projects, and a introduction to animating plots in MATLAB. Appendix A provides a primer on matrix algebra. Appendix B contains a set of mini-projects. Appendix C demonstrates how to make animated plots in MATLAB.

Each lesson contains screenshots of actual MATLAB programs that are used to help illustrate the concepts presented. More than 120 complete programs are shown throughout this book to demonstrate to the reader how to use programming concepts. The book is written in a USA-Today style question-answer format for a quick grasp of the concepts.

The purpose of this book is to provide the reader with a firm basic understanding of MATLAB syntax and fundamental programming concepts. Each lesson contains MATLAB programs that are used to help illustrate the concepts presented. By no means do the authors claim to present every MATLAB command, function, application, or programming concept in existence.

## Time it takes to find a determinant

To make the point of how inefficient it is to find the determinant of a matrix by the cofactor method, I wrote a program in MATLAB to demonstrate this.  A google search for a program written in any language to find the determinant by using the cofactor method was not available beyond a 4×4 matrix.  So, I wrote one that finds the determinant of matrices of up to 12×12 order.

I ran the program on an Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-8500 CPU @3.00GHz PC.  Here is a table of the CPU time it took in seconds to find the determinant of a matrix as a function of its order.
______________________________________
Order of matrix               CPU Time to Find
Determinant (s)
______________________________________
6×6                                           0.015625
7×7                                           0.046875
8×8                                           0.203125
9×9                                           0.828125
10×10                                        5.14063
11×11                                       52.6406
12×12                                   623.953
______________________________________

If one continues to do this for a 25×25 matrix, it is estimated that it would take $8.1821198 \times 10^{17}$ seconds which is more than 25 billion years, and we all know that the estimated age of the universe is less at about 13.77 billion years.

The trend of the approximate time it takes to find the determinant of the next order of the matrix, nxn is approximately n times the time it takes to find the determinant of a (n-1)x(n-1) matrix.  For example, it took a time of 52.6406 seconds for finding the determinant of a 11×11 matrix, while it would be estimated to take approximately 12×52.6406=631.7 seconds for finding the determinant of a 12×12 matrix.  This is close to the 623.953 seconds it actually took.

The above approximate time calculations are in concurrence with the note written by Professor A.J. Wise in 1969, where he showed that the number of arithmetic operations required to evaluate a nxn determinant by cofactor method is given by [n!e]-2, and hence n!e for large n and the time it takes to find the determinant of the next order of the matrix, nxn is approximately n times the time it takes to find the determinant of a (n-1)x(n-1) matrix

Since the arithmetic operation required here are just addition, multiplication and subtraction, the computation time could be crudely estimated as 4Tn!e for large n, where T is the clock cycle time and we assume that an addition or a multiplication or a subtraction each use 4 clock cycle times.  Does it match?

For a 3.00 GHz machine, $T={1}/({3 \times 10^9})$ seconds to give an approximate time for a 12×12 matrix determinant calculation to be $4 \times {1}/{(3 \times 10^9)} \times 12! e = 1.736 seconds$.  It is not even of similar order.  Many items go into calculating CPU time for a numerical algorithm, but to do a comparative analysis, these calculations are quite helpful.

This post is brought to you by

• Holistic Numerical Methods Open Course Ware:
• the textbooks on
• the Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) available at

## New site for the Numerical Method MOOC

Our MOOCs on Numerical Methods that were offered on canvas.net site have been moved to a new CANVAS Free for Teachers site.  Current students can continue to use the current MOOCs indefinitely.

For future students, the two-part MOOC now has been combined into one and it is accessible at any time.   There are no deadlines to start or finish.  To enroll, just click this link https://canvas.instructure.com/enroll/KYGTJR and you are on your way to learn Numerical Methods via audiovisual lectures, textbook content and online assessments.

This post is brought to you by

• Holistic Numerical Methods Open Course Ware:
• the textbooks on
• the Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) available at

## Using Watu quizzes and Latex in WordPress

Many years ago, I modified a JavaScript code to develop online quizzes for Numerical Methods.  An example of that is here – right click to “View Page Source”. http://nm.mathforcollege.com/mcquizzes/01aae/quiz_01aae_introduction.html

The above quiz is adequate but looks vintage and I am currently in the process of migrating my whole numerical methods site to WordPress.  As part of this migration, I tried to update the JavaScript code to work on WordPress but that turned out to be above my pay grade.

After much searching, I found the WATU quiz plugin and am using it to redevelop the quizzes from scratch with much of the text being cut and paste from old quizzes.

WATU is quite versatile but I faced issues with rendering of the equations.  For that I use the WP-Katex plugin.  Simply put the equations between the  tagname latex in brackets []  followed by /latex in brackets [], and this shortcode works.  I would show an example to illustrate the use of the shortcode, but it gets rendered.  See usage here.

This use of latex shortcode worked well for the question statements in the quiz but when latex shortcode was put in the distractors, equations would show up with weird spacing.  This was resolved quickly by WATU support where they suggested to edit the WATU style.css file.  See https://wordpress.org/support/topic/latex-not-displaying-properly-in-multiple-choice-answers/ for the solution.  It worked.

Now, another Latex issue cropped up when a user would submit a quiz  and it shows the right answers to the user.  The equations written in Latex would not get rendered and instead it would show the linear form of the equations.   Those were resolved by going to general settings in the WATU quizzes and check marking quizzes to not use Ajax.

WATU is a complete solution for posting online quizzes on the web for student practice.  I am not using WATU to collect data or to assign a grade, but these capabilities do exist in WATU.

See the new version of the quiz I created now on WordPress: https://numericalmethods.autarkaw.com/quiz-chapter-01-01-introduction-to-numerical-methods-2/  Please do not bookmark the quiz as this is a test website and I will be migrating the test website to the original site (http://mathforcollege.com) by the time Fall semester starts.  This will create the least disruption to maintain legacy of open course ware.

This post is brought to you by

• Holistic Numerical Methods Open Course Ware:
• the textbooks on
• the Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) available at