Another improper integral solved using trapezoidal rule


In a previous post, I showed how Trapezoidal rule can be used to solve improper integrals.  The example used in the post was an improper integral with an infinite interval of integration.

In an example in this post, we use Trapezoidal rule to solve an improper integral where the integrand becomes infinite.  The integral is \int_{0}^{b} 1/sqrt{x} dx .  The integrand becomes infinite at x=0.  Since x=0 would be one of the points where the integrand will be sought by the multiple-segment Trapezoidal rule, we choose the value of the integrand at x=0 to be zero (any other value would do too – a better assumption would be f(h), where h is the segment width in the multiple-segment Trapezoidal rule).

Here is a MATLAB program that shows you the exact value of the integral and then compares it with the multiple-segment Trapezoidal rule.  The convergence is slow but you can integrate improper integrals using Trapezoidal rule.

The MATLAB program that can be downloaded at http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu/blog/trapezoidal_improper_sqrtx.m (better to download it as single quotes from the web-post do not translate correctly with the MATLAB editor).  The html file showing the mfile and the command window output is here: http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu/blog/html/trapezoidal_improper_sqrtx.html

% Simulation : Can I use Trapezoidal rule for an improper integral?

% Language : Matlab 2007a

% Authors : Autar Kaw, http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu

% Mfile available at
% http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu/blog/trapezoidal_improper_sqrt.m

% Last Revised : October 8, 2008

% Abstract: This program shows use of multiple segment Trapezoidal
% rule to integrate 1/sqrt(x) from x=0 to b, b>0.

clc
clear all

disp(‘This program shows the convergence of getting the value of ‘)
disp(‘an improper integral using multiple segment Trapezoidal rule’)
disp(‘Author: Autar K Kaw.  autarkaw.wordpress.com’)

%INPUTS.  If you want to experiment, these are the only variables
% you should and can change.
% b  = Upper limit of integration
% m = Maximum number of segments is 2^m
b=9;
m=14;

% SIMULATION
fprintf(‘\nFinding the integral of 1/sqrt(x) with limits of integration as x=0 to x=%g’,b)

% EXACT VALUE OF INTEGRAL
% integrand 1/sqrt(x)
syms x
f=1/sqrt(x);
a=0;
valexact=double(int(f,x,a,b));
fprintf(‘\n\nExact value of integral = %f’,valexact)
disp( ‘  ‘)

f=inline(‘1/sqrt(x)’);
%finding value of the integral using 16,…2^m segments
for k=4:1:m
n=2^k;
h=(b-a)/n;
sum=0;
for i=1:1:n-1
sum=sum+f(a+i*h);
end
% See below how f(a) is not added as f(a)=infinity.  Instead we
% use a value of f(a)=0.  How can we do that? Because as per integral calculus,
% using a different value of the function at one point or
% at finite number of points does not change the value of the
% integral.
sum=2*sum+0+f(b);
sum=(b-a)/(2*n)*sum;
fprintf(‘\nApproximate value of integral =%f with %g segments’,sum,n)
end
disp(‘  ‘)

This post is brought to you by Holistic Numerical Methods: Numerical Methods for the STEM undergraduate at http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu.

An abridged (for low cost) book on Numerical Methods with Applications will be in print (includes problem sets, TOC, index) on December 10, 2008 and available at lulu storefront.

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Autar Kaw

Autar Kaw (http://autarkaw.com) is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of South Florida. He has been at USF since 1987, the same year in which he received his Ph. D. in Engineering Mechanics from Clemson University. He is a recipient of the 2012 U.S. Professor of the Year Award. With major funding from NSF, he is the principal and managing contributor in developing the multiple award-winning online open courseware for an undergraduate course in Numerical Methods. The OpenCourseWare (nm.MathForCollege.com) annually receives 1,000,000+ page views, 1,000,000+ views of the YouTube audiovisual lectures, and 150,000+ page views at the NumericalMethodsGuy blog. His current research interests include engineering education research methods, adaptive learning, open courseware, massive open online courses, flipped classrooms, and learning strategies. He has written four textbooks and 80 refereed technical papers, and his opinion editorials have appeared in the St. Petersburg Times and Tampa Tribune.

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